Skin Care

The skin structure

Dehydrated/Dry skin

Oily Skin

Alipic Skin


The Epidermis is a the outermost layers of the skin. It has 5 main layers:

  1. Stratum basale
  2. Stratum spinosum
  3. Stratum granulosum
  4. Stratum lucidum
  5. Stratum corneum
Stratum basale:

Stratum basale is the deepest layer. Here happens the cell divison. We can find here the Merkel cells and Melanocytes here which connected to the Keratinocytes. The other layers of the epidermis are the deriviates of this cell line (basal cell lines). These cells always getting higher and higher in the epidermis and as they wander, they undergo in many chemical and shape changes and as a lifeless horny scales form they shed from the surface of the skin. It's called desquamation. Taking about two weeks for a cell to journey from the stratum basale to the top of the stratum granulosum, and an additional four weeks to cross the stratum corneum.

Stratum spinosum: It is also called the spinous or prickle cell layer. In this layer the cells start to synthesize keratin. The stratum spinosum also contains keratinocytes and Langerhans cells. ( Langerhans cells are macrophages — white cells that eat foreign matter. They are part of the immune system and work with T helper cells to protect the skin against foreign substances.

Its main function is to protect against foreign materials, and to produce and retain layers of lipids that prevent moisture loss from the skin. The stratum spinosum is composed mainly of basal cells that are produced in the stratum basale and pushed upward to form prickle cells. Column-shaped keratinocytes move into the stratum spinosum from the stratum basale where they are produced.

The keratinocytes then become polygon-shaped and begin to synthesize keratin. Keratin is a strong fibrous protein that forms a mesh that holds water and aids in retaining moisture within the skin. As fresh keratinocytes move into the stratum spinosum, they push older keratinocytes upward into the next epidermal layer where the cells begin to dry out and die.

Startum granulosum:

Startum granulosum is a thin layer of cells in the epidermis. As the stratum granulosum is impermeable to water and water-soluble substances, it forms a barrier between the active cells of the lower epidermis and the outer dead cells. These cells contain keratohyalin granules, protein structures that promote hydration and crosslinking of keratin

Startum lucidum:

Startum lucidum is a thin, clear layer of dead skin cells in the epidermis. The stratum lucidum is present only where the skin is especially thick, such as the soles of the feet and the palms of the hands. It is transparent when viewed under a microscope. (In Latin, stratum lucidum means "clear layer.")

It is composed of three to five layers of dead, flattened keratinocytes.

The keratinocytes of the stratum lucidum do not feature distinct boundaries and are filled with eleidin, an intermediate form of keratin. Melanocytes determine the darkness of the stratum lucidum.

Startum corneum:

Is the outermost layer of the epidermis,-this is the top layer of the skin- consisting of dead cells (corneocytes) that lack nuclei and organelles. The stratum corneum is a protective barrier against environmental damage from sun, penetration, toxins, and microorganisms, and by retaining moisture and lubricants. It also protects underlying tissue from infection, dehydration, chemicals and mechanical stress.

The stratum corneum is composed of corneocytes, corneodesmosomes, keratinocytes, enzymes, lipids, and natural moisturizing factor (NMF), and plays a complicated and critical role in the health of the skin. It consists of dead or dying keratin-containing cells. It generally is responsible for the look, feel, and health of the skin. Cells of the stratum corneum contain a dense network of keratin, a protein that helps keep the skin hydrated by preventing water evaporation.

Keratin is made in cells called keratinocytes, which make up 90 percent of skin cells. As these cells mature, they push toward the surface of the skin, dry out, and slough off. Humans slough 40.000 to 50.000 skin cells every day.


The dermis is the second (middle) layer of the skin. It's below the epidermis.

It consists of connective tissue.

The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis through a basement membrane. Structural components of the dermis are collagen, elastic fibers, and extrafibrillar matrix. The collagen and elastin in this layer of skin form a durable mesh-like layer. Additionally, the dermis contains sebaceous glands, hair follicles, sweat glands, and nerves.

It's divided into two areas: a superficial area adjacent to the epidermis, called the papillary region, and a deep thicker area known as the reticular region.

It helps the body maintain its temperature and even sends nutrients to part of the epidermis. Since the dermis contains nerves, it also helps a person to recognize a range of sensations, including pain, touch, and warmth or cold.

The sebaceous glands in the dermis have an important job to do as well. They serve to produce an oily substance called sebum that helps to lubricate not only the skin, but also the hair that protrudes from it. The substance also helps make the skin somewhat waterproof. Sweat glands are important as well, as they help the body to regulate its temperature.

The wrinkles develop in the dermis, and creams can't penetrate that far into the skin.

Subcutaneous tissue/Hypoderdmis

Subcutaneous is the lowermost layer of the skin.

This layer is responsible for regulating body temperature. When a person’s body begins to overheat, it is a signal from the subcutaneous tissue that generates sweat to help cool it down.

It contains elastic fibers, nerves, and hair follicle roots.

The hypodermis is used mainly for fat storage.

this layer of skin plays a role in pigmentation.

Skin care

If you want to take care of your skin and treat it well, there are 3 main areas of focus:
  1. Lifestyle: ie. avoid stress
  2. Nutritionally: what do you eat
  3. How do you treat your skin

1. Dehydrated/dry skin

A skin becomes dehydrated when it has lost its moisture. This can happen even on skins that produce too much oil. The surface of the skin feels tight, dreaded fine lines occur, lack of radiance and loss of elasticity. The lack of moisture is the responsible of the wrinkles, then the connective tissues and the last reason is the lack of oil.

The dehydration of the skin doesn't depend on how much oil there is in it, but how much water. If the skin starts to lose water, then we talk about dehydrated skin. The sebums could overact, so the skin is oily, altough it is tight and feel dry, because of the water loss.

So just because it looks oily, it doesnt mean its not dehydrated. And even if you put oily/greasy cream on your skin, it won't help if your skin is dehydrated. If the sebum doesn't produce enough oil, the skin won’t be dehydrated (unless its associated with lack of water - and usually it does), but it becomes flaky and it will be very sensitive, but not dehydrated. Once this damage occurs, the skin will no longer be a good barrier against the environment.

What causing dehydrated skin?
  • Not enough water
  • If the water can't utilize, because of the intestinal flora is incomplete
  • Creams with harmful ingredients
  • Smoke
  • Hot shower
  • Low humidity

Let me tell you why some moisturizers and/or creams could cause problems for your skin. If it contains the following ingredients, there is a huge chance that that's the reason for your skin problems:

  • Mineral oil
  • Petrolatum
  • Paraffin
  • Mycrocystalline Wax
  • Aluminium Stearates
  • Lanolin (if it's not bio)
  • Fragnance

If you find one of these ingredients in your cream, you should stop using it. The skin wants to dilute this heavy, greasy cream, so takes water from the tissues. Because of this, the tissues will be flat and thin over time, so the skin becomes wrinkled. However if someone stops using a cream with those ingredients, then a stretching feeling will occure, because the skin’s self-sufficiency is destroyed by the petrolatum and paraffin. The only solution is: avoid this cream with those ingredients.


The main goal is to allocate moisture (water)in the skin: from inside and outside as well. Keep in mind: the skin can't absorb water. If it would be true, imagine what could happen if you would sit in a bath tub with full of water. Eat lost of fibro, drink at least 2L water/day, use cream what contains agents which activates the natural moisturizing factor's (NMF)"work".

These are:

  • Algae extract
  • Aloe Vera
  • Chitosan
  • Fucus Vesiculosus
  • Lactic Acid
  • Sorbitol
  • Sucrose
  • Urea
  • Ceramid 3 - Glycolipids +Phospholipids+Sphingolipids
  • Butyrospermum Parkii/Shea Butter
  • Lechitin
  • Soybean Phospholipid


If you don't drink enough water, then these won't have proper effects either...

Avoid these ingredients:

  • Paraffin
  • Petrolatum
  • Vazelin
  • Mineral oil
  • Ceresin
  • Microkristalline wax
  • Polyisobutane
  • Polydecence

Oils for dehydrated/dry skin:

  • Wheat germ oil
  • Jojoba oil
  • Linseed oil
  • Evening promrose oil
  • Sunflower oil
  • Apricot kernek oil
  • Sweed almond oil
  • Avocado oil


Let me provide you some information before I talk about oily skin.

Sebaceous Glands

Sebaceous Glands can be found in all parts of the skin in the human body except soles and palms. These glands are generally located in the hairy parts of the body. It's located in the upper third of the hair follicle, in the dermis and surrounded by connective tissue case.

The gland can also be found in non-hairy regions of the skin, such as the eyes, nipples, Labia Minora, penis and nose.


The cells in the in the *grandular epithelium filled with greas/fat drops, the cell wall cracks and the fatty plasma mixes with cell debris (= the debris of old and worn-out cells that is thrown out by your system) and this secretion is the Sebum, which excreted into the hair follicle and then on the surface of the skin.

Simplified: Sebacceus gland produces oily fluid called sebum, that helps keep hair and skin soft, regulates body heat by controlling the evaporation rate of perspiration and preventing the proliferation of pathogens.

*Grandular Epithelium: is avascular tissue comprised of cells that cover the exterior surfaces of the body and line both the internal closed cavities and those body tubes that communicate witht the exterior. (H. Wyne Labert, Ph. D.)

Sebum:Sebum is the Latin word of "fat". It is the oily secretion of the Sebacceus Glands. Sebum is yellowish, semi-liquid, frozen in the air and meltin on 50-55C. It's composed of many glycerol ester, some free fatty acids, cholesterol, proteins, mineral salts and water.

It is secreted through a small duct. From the gland it moves up the hair shaft and ultimately arises to the skin surface through the hair follicle. While coming up, it helps to push out any dust particle, germs or skin debris that may have somehow enterd into the hair follicle.

If the Sebum production is overact, then Seborrhoea developes. This is a Latin word, means: "sebum hypertrophy". When the sebaceous glands suffer an inflammation, pustules or pimples appear over the skin.

There are 2 Seborrhoea types:

  1. Seborrhoea Oleosa (oily seborrhoea)
  2. Seborrhoea Sicca (dry/dandruff seborrhoea)
1. Seborrhoea Oleosa:

The skin is shiny, pale, the pores are big, oily-slick texture, dilated cappilar appears in the nose bight and black heads appear.

How does it happen:

More sebum is excreted than is necessary, which blocks the skin surface from the air, the bacteries on the skin activates (these are there in normal condition too), lipolytic enzyme lipase is generated and because of that the compositon of the sebum is changed. Oleic acid will be dominant, which blocks the breathing of the skin even more, thus inflammatory processes can be triggered.

When dead cells, sebum and bacteria clog pores, the blockage they create causes the skin surrounding it to swell. The result is a closed comedone, or whitehead. If the clogged follicle opens, the result is an open comedone, or blackhead. If the clogged follicle becomes inflamed, it leads to the formation of pimples, nodules and cysts. Pimples are pus-filled lesions close to the skin's surface, while nodules and cysts are deeper in the skin and can lead to scarring.

A pimple occurs when a pore in your skin becomes blocked by an oily substance known as sebum. The sebaceous gland continues to secrete sebum into the blocked pore until the pore erupts into the characteristic pustule known as a pimple.


  • Inherited property
  • Androgen (male hormone) hypertrophy
  • Stress
  • Lack of sunlight, air and exercise
  • High fat meals, too many semi-finished and refined foods, junk foods/li>
  • Not appropriate cosmetics (petroleum derivatives)
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Cardiovascular disorders
  • Autonomic nervous system disorders
  • Indigestion
  • Constipation
  • Puberty
  • Menopause


Very important to exfoliate the skin, so you can get rid of the dead cells (corneocytes), so the sebum can secreted.

Use sebaceous-function control, moisturizing and anti-inflammatory products, like:

  • Chamomile
  • Comfrey
  • Knapweed
  • Yarrow
  • Mallow
  • Rose
  • Aloe vera
  • Calendula
  • Elder
  • Tea-tree
  • Sage
  • Horsetail
  • Juniper
  • Thyme
  • Gentian
  • Burdock
  • Willow bark
  • Ginseng
  • Cherry
  • Plum
  • Rose hips
  • Orange
  • Grapefruit
  • Currants
  • Red grapes
  • Red wine
  • Tomato
  • Banan
  • Cucumber
  • Yogurt
  • Algae
  • Medical Mud

Don't forget: You always have to check your lifestyle. If you have an oily skin, you have to treat it first from inside and you should find the reason why your skin is oily. Your skin reflects your health.

Usually the reason of the oily skin is primaliy because of the lifestyles, nutriton and hormonal problems. The skin disease is just a symptom, indicating that something is not working well in the body. If you only treat the skin - suppressing the symptoms - you can reach only a short-term successes.

If you avoid sugar and milk, you will see your skin will feel better.

In most cases a simple lifetyle changes are enough to get rid of oily skin.

Don't use drying products, because the more drying ingredients you place on your face the more your skin will work to replace the oil you are trying to remove, but choose a product which re-structuring the function of the skin and teaches for a normal sebacceus gland production.

2. Seborrhoea Sicca


  • Dull
  • Pale gray-colored
  • Irregularly broad pore
  • Scaly
  • Rough if you touch
  • Often itchy and inflamed
  • After washing usually reacts like an alipic skin (dry, stretching feeling)

In contrast to alipic skin,it is full of hardly excreted closed hard black-comedon (black head) and white comedon. In the sebum the cholesterol ester's ratio increase and because of that the black-heads are hard, the keratinization (Cornification)is more, thus there is barely sebum on the surface of the skin.

It's always accompanied by lack of water in the skin. The skin becomes more sensitive and often Dermatitis Seborrhoea developes.


Same as the Seborrhoea Oleosa


Mostly with radical lifesytle change. Everything what you put on it, just a symptomatic treatment and in the most case it gets worse, becasue of the non-proper products.

Some external treatments:

  • Exfoliation
  • Don't use drying products
  • Only use calming and soothing herbal agents, like horsetail,comfrey, yarrow, lavender, thyme, B-vitamins containing plants
  • Just professional esthetician can clean it

If you see the pores are full with hard black-heads and not just around the nose, chin, foreahead, but on the cheeks, under the eyes, in front of the ears, under the jaw as well, you have an oily skin, no matter how dry you feel it.

The Seborrhoea Sicca is a communication channel of our body, which gives us thousands of warnings to us and determines our internal problems with its condition. It is able to predict heart attack, cancer, high blood preassure and immune disease way before it happens.

Every abnormal symptom refers to an internal changes that it's not a problem, not a sickness yet, but they may become if we don't understand the language of our skin to prevent any trouble.

The pale skin is a sign that there is no sufficient amount of oxygen in the body.

The Seborrhoea Sicca is characterized by thickening itself. It happens when the skin contacts too many chemicals and it doesn't want to "let them into" the body, therefore, constantly thickening.

Overactive sebaceous glands are clearly refers to the disruption of lipid metabolism and cardiovascular problems, which means the sebum tries to evacuate the toxins what the body accumulated.

What causes the hard black-heads?

  • Not enough essential fatty acid gets to the body
  • You don't drink enough water
  • Your fluid balance can't "bond" the water in your body
    The reasons are: hormon problems (ie. birth control pills), eating too much salt and sugar.
  • Digestive problems, what causes black heads especially around the mouth and jaw


Every skin problem could be trace back to nutrition, lifestyle, vitamins and minerals.It follows that the key to success is began a thorough detoxication with a radical lifestyle change.

  • You have to fix first the intestinal flora, which responsible for the immune system
  • Detoxication, which also means you don't let more poison into your body
  • Targeted nutritional intake with clean food
  • Replace your cosmetic product for non-toxix, chemical free and petroleum free

Some tip what can help to get rid of Seborrhoea Sicca:

  • Try to avoid white sugar
  • Don't eat instant and fastfood
  • Don't eat too much meat
  • Be outside as much as you can
  • Go to sauna
  • Don't use birth control pills

Try this recipe for Oily skin:

  • 30 ml of jojoba oil
  • 3 drops of ylang-ylang oil
  • 2 drops of lemon oil
  • 2 drops of rosewood oil
  • Sage is a drop of oil
  • 1 drop of geranium oil.

Pour the jojoba oil in a clean jar and then add the essential oils. Close the lid and shake it well for few mins. After face wash put on a cleansing wipe 2-3 drops and wipe your face with it. Use only 100% essential oils!

When an acne occurs it means something is going on in your body.

The forehead is related to the nervous system, between the eyebrows to the liver, the tip of the nose to the genitals, the nasal bridge to the stomach, liver, spleen, the sides of the face to the liver and gallbladder. If you have acne on your back it means you have digestive problems.

It doesn't necessarily mean that you have problems there, but there is a big chance.

Possible reasons:

  • Digestive problems
  • Minor intestinal problems
  • Liver problems
  • Irregular sleep, stress
  • Too much sugar in food
  • Irritating hair care product
  • Bad tooth
  • Too much protein
  • The body had enough from the toxics and tries to get rid of them

You can find chemicals in food and in many skin care products.

You should detoxify your body and support your gut flora with probiotics.

Don't use drying products, because the more drying ingredients you put on your face the more your skin will work to replace the oil you are trying to remove.


  • Algae
  • Aloe Vera
  • Tea tree essential oil
  • Lavender essential oil
  • Rose hip essential oil
  • Dead see mud
  • What I suggest:

    • Drink at least 2L water/day
    • Detoxify your body
    • Support your gut flora with probiotics
    • Take dietary suppliments
    • Try to cut down sugar (chocolate, sweets, soft drinks, etc)
    • Avoid milk, because it contains hormons
    • Eat more fish
    • Exfoliate your skin 3 times a week
    • Use moisturizer
    • Go to a proper esthetician for a facial

    Use just natural/organic products, or make your own creams and scrubs.

    Home made Tonic for acne: (from Garden of Beauty blog)

    1 cup distilled water, 1 tbsp thyme leaves, 10 drops tea tree essential oil.

    In a saucepan bring water to boil. Remove from heat and add the herbs, cover and steep for 30mins. Stir and pour into an empty jar and add the essential oil. Shake it. You can keep it for a week in the fridge. Use cotton pad with 1 tsp of astringent, or more for your back.

    Or you can chose from these natural and organic brands: 100% Pure, Eminence Organic, etc.

    But note that creams can not solve this problem 100%, just if you change your lifestyle.


    A skin becomes alipic when the sebum production is inadequate. (The oil glands don't produce enough sebum.)

    Alipic skin is a dry skin type in the USA and Canada, altough in Europe it's a "single" skin type.

    If you think about it, it makes sense: if you have an alipic skin, it's not because your skin has lack of water, but because the sebum production is inadequate. So it's not a dry skin type -altough it feels rough, tight and it often co-exists with dehydration,- but alipic.

    Normally during the keratinization, (when the cells are coming outward from the bottom to the surface and changing), waxy materials and water bindig factors formed. From this and from the sebaceous and sweat glands' secretion developes the skin's primary protection; the skin surface lipid.

    When someone has Alipic Skin, the skin waxy substances, water-binding factors and the sebum production are blocked, so the surface emulsion is inperfect and the skin is less protected.

    2 types

    1. Mild Alipic
    2. Increased Alipic

    1. Mild Alipic

    • Peels (like a powder
    • Dull
    • The pores are small, closed
    • Little bit rough
    • It is sensitive for the cold wind, reacts with red spots
    • Blackhead is very rarely found on it, maximum around the nose

    2. Increased Alipic

    • Peels
    • Dull
    • The pores are small, closed
    • Rough
    • It reacts with red spots and itch for the smallest internal or external changes
    • The skin burns, hurts, itches
    • There is no black heads


    We have to use soothing, anti-inflammatory and lubricating agents.

    1. Rose hip seed oil
    2. Grape seed oil
    3. Evening primrose oil
    4. Shea butter
    5. Tea tree
    6. Lavender
    7. Lemon balm
    8. Myrrh
    9. Chamomile
    10. Palm rose
    11. Sage
    12. Vitamin A, E, F - as well as fruits and vegetables that contain these vitamins

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